Utilizing ordinary cells, scientists have been able to avoid the controversy concerning the use of aborted fetuses and discarded embryos for organ development. For example, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases are caused by the death of specific cells in the brain.
We have declined to use the terms "reproductive cloning" and "therapeutic cloning. But we believe it is morally wrong to exploit and destroy developing human life, even for good reasons, and that it is unwise to open the door to the many undesirable consequences that are likely to result from this research.
The article is competently written and flows well. The strongest empirical support for the broken windows theory came from the work of political scientist Wesley Skogan, who found that certain types of social and physical disorder were related to certain kinds of serious crime. Seven Bridges Press, This book provides a comprehensive and balanced overview of the various and often contrasting ethical views relating to cloning.
He entertains even the wildest and most speculative notions because--as he argues persuasively--the future is already here. Activate the reconstructed egg with chemicals or electric current, to stimulate it to commence cell division. Deliberate creation for use. Members are united, though, in endorsing the worthiness of the approach taken and the importance of the separate arguments made.
House Subcommittee on Health illustrates this point in convincing fashion: Finally, the legislative debates over human cloning raise large questions about the relationship between science and society, especially about whether society can or should exercise ethical and prudential control over biomedical technology and the conduct of biomedical research.
The fate of embryos used in research. Giving moral approval to such research risks significant moral harm to our society by 1 crossing the boundary from sexual to asexual reproduction, thus approving in principle the genetic manipulation and control of nascent human life; 2 opening the door to other moral hazards, such as cloning-to-produce-children or research on later-stage human embryos and fetuses; and 3 potentially putting the federal government in the novel and unsavory position of mandating the destruction of nascent human life.
Many scientists believe that these versatile cells, capable of becoming any type of cell in the body, hold great promise for understanding and treating many chronic diseases and conditions.
Insert the nucleus of a donor adult cell into the enucleated egg, to produce a reconstructed egg. Public reaction to the prospect of cloning-for-biomedical-research has been mixed: Reflections on the "social contract" between science and society highlight both the importance of scientific freedom and the need for boundaries.
Genetically modified animal organs could begin to fill this need. Editor Gregory Pence, a medical ethicist and professor of philosophy, chose the essays in this book because they "offer various points of view on whether we should be excited, disturbed, or indifferent to the prospect of human cloning.
Human cloning, were it to succeed, would enable parents for the first time to determine the entire genetic makeup of their children. A cloned child has unilineal, not bilineal, descent; he or she is genetically kin to only one progenitor.
But normal businesses thrive by taking risks. In the remainder of this overview, we describe the context of human cloning and the discussions it has generated.
President Bush left the Council free to establish its own priorities among the many issues encompassed within its charter, based on the urgency and gravity of those issues and the public need for practical guidance about them.
A few Council Members who favor cloning-for-biomedical-research do not share all the ethical qualms expressed above. We believe that concerns about the exploitation of women and about the risk that cloning-for-biomedical-research could lead to cloning-to-produce-children can be adequately addressed by appropriate rules and regulations.
To engage in cloning-for-biomedical-research requires the irreversible crossing of a very significant moral boundary: The more contextual goals and constraints that must be served the more discretionary authority in an agency is pushed upward to the top.
Such a system could not be developed overnight, and therefore even those who support the research but want it regulated should see that at the very least a pause is required. Though both seek a ban on what is being called "reproductive" cloning--in which a clonal human embryo is implanted in a woman with the intent that a cloned human being will be born--they differ dramatically with respect to what is being termed "therapeutic" cloning.
We have resisted the temptation to solve the moral questions by artful redefinition or by denying to some morally crucial element a name that makes clear that there is a moral question to be faced.
It tends to focus on the positive medical aspects of therapeutic cloning and the central trajectory of the study is that cloning can have many valid and worthy medical benefits.
Using somatic cell nuclear transfer and other cloning technologies, biotech researchers will continue to learn about cell differentiation, re-programming and other areas of cell and molecular biology.
Need this paper immediately?A distinguished collection of papers by leading scientists and bioethicists on the science and social issues realted to large-animal cloning, the propspective medical benefits for development of pharmaceuticals in transgenic animals and of organs for xenotransplants, and the implications for thed so possibility of human cloning.
A distinguished collection of papers by leading scientists and bioethicists on the science and social issues realted to large-animal cloning, the propspective medical benefits for development of pharmaceuticals in transgenic animals and of organs for xenotransplants, and the implications for thed so possibility of human cloning.
The Ethics of Human Cloning Ethics of Human Cloning ALL 2/11/04 PM Page 1. Ethical Issues of Human Cloning: An Overview 9 Michael Woods 2.
The News Media and the Human Cloning Debate 15 James Q. Wilson 8. Cloning Human Embryos for Medical Purposes Is Unethical The primary biomedical benefits of cloning stem more from the use of this technology in the genetic modification of animals rather than from making identical copies, however.
He suggested that cloning could help us overcome the unpredictable variety that still rules human reproduction and would allow us to benefit from perpetuating superior genetic endowments.
Those writings sparked a small public debate in which I became a participant. In this engaging book, Leon R. Kass, the noted teacher, scientist, and humanist, and James Q. Wilson, the preeminent political scientist to whom four U.S.
presidents have turned for advice on crime, drug abuse, education, and other crises in American life, explore the ethics of human cloning, reproductive technology, and the teleology of human sexuality.Download